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Link: The Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalopathies, Dementias, and Epilepsies

Many disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) previously considered neurodegenerative and untreatable are now recognized as having an autoimmune cause.1,2 Autoimmune disorders of the CNS may be paraneoplastic (occurring in the setting of an occult systemic cancer) or idiopathic. Improved recognition of these disorders has been facilitated by an expanding profile of neural-specific autoantibodies discovered and validated for clinical use in academic neuroimmunology laboratories. When detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), these immunoglobulin G (IgG) biomarkers reliably predict an autoimmune cause for neurological dysfunction in patients presenting with rapidly progressive brain disorders. New testing profiles relevant to the evaluation of 3 neurological disease states (autoimmune encephalopathy, dementia, and epilepsy) are now available from the Neuroimmunology Laboratory at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Testing profiles, available for both serum and CSF, include neural antibodies that have been clinically validated as biomarkers of these 3 disorders. (Table 1) Negative results for these antibodies do not exclude an autoimmune basis for encephalopathy, dementia, or epilepsy, so in seronegative cases, a diagnostic trial of immunotherapy should be considered.

This The full comunique can be found at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/articles/communique/2014/07-autoimmune-encephalopathy/index.html. This link was posted on 3rd December, 2014 by T.A.O.

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