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Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. It was first described in 1966. It is sometimes referred to as a neuroendocrine disorder, although the condition’s relationship to the endocrine system is widely disputed. – Wikipedia


  • Video: RHR: Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN) as a Treatment for Autoimmune Disease
    An excellent and informative video on LDN therapy in autoimmune diseases. This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor […]
  • Link: Private Medical Services by UK Doctors
    While we do not advocate using online pharmacies that are not montiored by reputable GPs, some patients may find this link informative and help form an understanding of what autoimmune conditions LDN (low dose naltrexone) may help treat. Please always review your current medications with your GP before starting LDN therapy. This website […]
  • Blog: #ZebraFightTonight against #HashimotosEncephalopathy

    On the 26th of April, local Oregon news station, KMTR interviewed husband and wife, Tim and Kelly McCabe. Kelly is battling a rare autoimmune disease known as Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy (also know as Steroid Responsive Autoimmune Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis or SREAT). Recently a member of the online support group, Understanding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy – A Support Forum, Tabitha Andrews-Orth, meet up with Kelly for the first time in person.

  • Link: Autoantibodies to neuronal surface antigens in thyroid antibody-positive and -negative limbic encephalitis
    Background : Thyroid antibodies (Thy-Abs) are frequently detected in various autoimmune disorders in coexistence with other systemic autoantibodies. In association with an encephalopathy, they are often taken as evidence of Hashimoto’s encephalitis (HE). However, the presence of Thy-Abs in a cohort of limbic encephalitis (LE) patients and their association with anti-neuronal autoimmunity has not been […]
  • Howard S. Kirshner, M.D. - Professor of Neurology and Vice-Chairman
    Dr. Kirshner earned his B.A. from Williams College in 1968, graduating summa cum laude. He received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1972, cum laude, and served as an intern in Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Kirshner spent two years as a staff associate in the Laboratory of Perinatal Physiology at the […]
  • Link: Hashimoto's encephalopathy: Report of three cases
    Both severe thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism may affect brain function and cause a change in consciousness, as seen with a thyroid storm or myxedema coma. However, encephalopathy may also develop in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases independent of actual thyroid function level, and this is known as Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Although most patients are found to have […]
  • Link: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Update
    First described in 1966, Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is still considered a controversial disorder, likely under-recognized, with diagnosis primarily based on exclusion. That is, if no other causes for the neurological symptoms are found and high titers of thyroid antibodies are present, a diagnosis of HE is made.   This article comes from the blog The […]
  • Link: Cognitive and affective dysfunctions in autoimmune thyroiditis
    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent cause of hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. While the impact of thyroid function on mood and cognition is well known, only in the recent years, an increasing number of studies report on the association of HT with cognitive and affective disturbances also in the euthyroid state. […]
  • Link: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: A frequently missed diagnosis
    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is described as a syndrome of encephalopathy and high serum antithyroid antibodies that is responsive to glucocorticoid therapy. We report a patient with overt hypothyroidism who presented with stroke-like episodes and a status epilepticus which responded dramatically to intraveous methylprednisolone given for a severe bronchospasm following aspiration. The high antithyroid antibody titers and […]
  • Link: The use of plasma exchange in Hashimoto's encephalopathy: A case report and review of the literature.
    Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy (HE) is a very rare condition characterized by psychosis, seizures, cognitive fluctuations, and myoclonus. In a few published cases, plasma exchange has been used due to the theoretical removal of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), one of the postulated causes of the condition.   The abstract can be found at; however, the full […]
  • Link: Pediatric Hashimoto's encephalopathy with peripheral nervous system involvement
    Hashimoto encephalopathy is a syndrome of encephalopathy associated with elevated concentration of circulating serum anti-thyroid antibodies usually responsive to steroid therapy. We report a 13-year-old girl with Hashimoto encephalopa- thy and peripheral nervous system involvement. The child had experienced high-grade pyrexia, global headache and sleeplessness. After admission she had an ileus with a distended urinary […]
  • Link: Catatonia: A Duel of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy and Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis (P5.166)
    OBJECTIVE To present a unique case of diagnostic conundrum in a catatonic patient positive for both anti NMDA receptor and anti TPO antibodies with a normal 24 hour EEG, brain MRI and CSF.BACKGROUND:Catatonia, although typically associated with schizophrenia and other affective disorders, can be an uncommon presenting feature of two rare neurologic disorders: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy […]
  • Link: Severe complication of catatonia in a young patient with Hashimoto's encephalopathy comorbid with Cornelia de Lange syndrome
    Dear Editor, Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLs) is a rare genetic disease diagnosed as a cluster of symptoms; however, there are only a few reports mentioning the immunologic problems in patients with CdLs. Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune encephalitis, which manifests as neurocognitive impairment and elevated antithyroid antibody (ATA) titers. Childhood HE manifests especially […]
  • Link: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy - A Brief Review
    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome of altered mental status, hallucinations, delusional thinking, and often, epileptic seizures. It is diagnosed by the clinical syndrome, the presence of elevated titers of antithyroid antibodies, the lack of another diagnosis based on clinical evaluation, and the response to corticosteroid and other immunosuppressant treatment. This review discusses the symptoms, […]
  • Link: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy mimicking presenile dementia
    Abstract Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE), which carries kaleidoscopic clinical presentations, is easily misdiagnosed in clinical practice. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of steroid therapy are associated with good prognosis. We describe a 50-year-old female patient who had subclinical hypothyroidism and who presented herself with gradual cognitive impairment, accompanied with auditory hallucination and delusion. Increased anti-thyroid antibodies […]
  • Link: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis misdiagnosed as Hashimoto's encephalopathy
    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a well-defined autoimmune disorder. Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a still controversial entity, lacking definite diagnostic criteria. This study discusses a paediatric case of Autoimmune Encephalopathy with presentation similar to Hashimoto’s Encephalitis. The abstract only can be found at This article is only available by subscription or purchase.   Copyright © 2013 […]
  • Link: Recurrent status epilepticus associated with Hashimoto's encephalopathy
    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is an infrequent disease with no well-known physiopathology. Status epilepticus is rarely reported in association with HE. We describe the 7-year evolution of a young woman who presented with recurrent status epilepticus as the main complication of HE. This evolution was especially marked by the occurrence of steroid-refractory symptoms and a poor […]
  • Link: Types Of Autoimmune Encephalitis
    Autoimmune Encephalitis may be triggered by infection in which case the term “Post-infectious Encephalitis” is used. ADEM( Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis ) is a Post-infectious Encephalitis. The illness usually follows in the wake of a mild viral infection (such as those that cause rashes in childhood) or immunisations. Typically there is a delay of days to two […]
  • Link: Antithyroid antibodies in the CSF: Their role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy
     Abstract Antithyroid antibodies and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were found in the CSF of six patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) but not in the CSF of 21 controls. The synthesis of autoantibodies and CIC was intrathecal and their titers were independent of the patients’ clinical status or therapy. Their presence in the CSF of patients […]
  • Link: Complex partial status epilepticus as a manifestation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy
    Epileptic seizures are a frequent manifestation of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. However, status epilepticus associated with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy are not well characterized in medical literature. We described here a 16-year-old girl who presented with complex partial status epilepticus associated with elevated anti-thyroid antibodies. Ictal EEG showed lateralized high amplitude rhythmic delta waves over the right hemisphere and […]
  • Link: Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presenting with Diffusion MR Imaging Changes

    Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) presents with focal or diffuse nonenhancing MR imaging abnormalities in 50% of patients with SREAT during subacute exacerbation.

  • Link: A Case of Refractory Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Demonstrating Improvement with Plasmapheresis (P5.227)
    Objective To describe an unusual case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) associated with significant imaging findings that responded to plasmapheresis. Background Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was first described by Hakaru Hashimoto in 1912 but it was Lord Brain who first noted the association between thyroiditis and an unusual encephalopathy in 1966 that he called Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. As it […]
  • Link: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Complicated by Cerebellar Ataxia: A Case Report

    To present a case of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy (HE) with long-term neurological sequelae.BACKGROUND: Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, also known as steroid responsive encephalopathy secondary to autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a rare condition that typically affects middle aged females with known anti-TPO antibodies and a history of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The diagnosis is often overlooked because there is no diagnostic biomarker, and patients can present with several non-specific neurological symptoms that are often incorrectly attributed to other disease processes. Neurological outcomes are rarely reported. It is important to recognize and distinguish HE from other encephalopathies as it is a distinct, treatable entity, which is almost always responsive to steroid therapy.

  • Link: A follow-up 18F-FDG brain PET study in a case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy causing drug-resistant status epilepticus treated with plasmapheresis

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with antithyroid antibodies. It may have an acute onset (episodes of cerebral ischemia, seizure, and psychosis) or it may present as an indolent form (depression, cognitive decline, myoclonus, tremors, and fluctuations in level of consciousness). We here describe a case of encephalopathy presenting as non-convulsive status epilepticus associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), unresponsive to corticosteroid therapy, with improvement after plasma exchange treatment.

  • Link: Hashimoto's Encephalitis: Unusual Cause of Reversible Dementia
    Abstract: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a poorly understood and often misdiagnosed rare autoimmune disease with varied neurological and psychiatric features. The low prevalence and varied clinical features coupled with unclear pathogenesis and histopathologic characteristics have caused still doubts in any particular diagnostic criteria. Therefore, more case studies are needed to characterize the clinical, laboratory and […]
  • Link: Two patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy and uncontrolled diabetes successfully treated with levetiracetam
    Abstract: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare syndrome of progressive or relapsing–remitting encephalopathy associated with elevated serum anti-thyroid antibody concentrations. It is thought to be an autoimmune process that generally responds well to high-dose corticosteroids and other immunomodulatory therapies. However, some patients are unresponsive to steroids or are unable to receive immune therapy. A viable […]
  • Link: Clinical and neuropathological findings in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a case report

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a controversial autoimmune condition of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by focal and/or diffuse symptoms concomitant with raised levels of anti-thyroid antibodies, in particular anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies [1]. Hereby, we provide the full clinical and neuropathological description of an HE patient with a rapid and fatal course.

  • PDF Link: Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting as Acute Psychosis
    Abstract: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a relapsing encephalopathy occurring in association with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies. Clinically the patients may presents with acute or subacute encephalopathy, seizure, myoclonus, and tremulousness, stroke like episode, amnesia or dementia. Here we are reporting a case of hashimoto’s encephalopathy who presented with features of acute psychosis. […]
  • Link: Encefalopatía de Hashimoto
    The article discusses two forms of presentation, “vasculitic” which is remitting/relapsing and “progressive” which is characterized by confussion, psychosis, and potentially coma. The original article, published in Spanish, is located at The full text can be translated at The full text of this article is found at and was published in 2002. […]
  • Link: Steroid-responsive Encephalopathy in Autoimmune Thyroiditis: Clinical Spectrum and MRI Observations in Three Cases
    This study looks at three cases of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, discussing MRI and EEG observations in each case. To read the full text, proceed to The full text of this article is found at PMC and was published in 2011. Copyright © Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology   Is there a tag missing? Suggest […]
  • Link: Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Cases: Chinese Experience
    This study discusses Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy and it’s presentation of multiple neurologic symptoms and high anti-body titer. It specifically focuses on the Chinese population but may be of some interest for the purpose of personal research.   The full text of this article is found at BMC Neurology. Copyright © 2012 Tang et al.; licensee BioMed […]
  • Link: Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Presenting with Progressive Cerebellar Ataxia

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is an autoimmune encephalopathy that came to be regarded as a new clinical entity distinct from myxo‐oedema encephalopathy, associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.