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Video: Meningitis and Encephalitis: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Encephalitis

Abstract:

The term autoimmune encephalitis is used to describe a group of disorders characterised by symptoms of limbic and extra-limbic dysfunction occurring in association with antibodies against synaptic antigens and proteins localised on the neuronal cell surface. in recent years there has been a rapidly expanding knowledge of these syndromes resulting in a shift in clinical paradigms and new insights into pathogenic mechanisms. Since many patients respond well to immunosuppressive treatment, the recognition of these disorders is of utmost importance. in general, there are no brain-imaging modalities or biomarkers specific of these disorders other than the demonstration of the neuronal antibodies. a disease classification based on these antibodies provides information on prognosis and paraneoplastic aetiology. This article focuses on recent clinical advances, newly characterised antibodies and treatment approaches to these disorders.

The full text to this study by Frank Leypoldt, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Christian Bien, and Josp Dalmau, can be found at http://www.touchneurology.com/articles/autoimmune-encephalitis.

This study was posted by G.D. on 31st October to this tread – https://www.facebook.com/groups/251477975360/permalink/10154711691935361/.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Rethinking therapy decisions in autoimmune encephalopathy

Researchers say that diagnosis and management of encephalopathies may need to be rethought, as many patients who test negative for the relevant antibody still benefit from immunotherapy.

Of 48 patients with a diagnosis of probable autoimmune encephalopathy, only 21 (44%) individuals were positive for antibodies known to be associated with this type of encephalopathy. However, both antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients responded to immunotherapy, with complete recovery achieved in 20 (42%) children, after a mean follow-up period of 24 months.

The full article can be found at http://linkis.com/www.news-medical.net/oSP1E.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Ethical Issues in the Management of Thyroid Disease

KEY POINTS  The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context.  In the context of thyroid disease management, clinical ethics dilemmas affect a wide range of health care providers: endocrinologists, primary care physicians, surgeons, oncologists, nuclear medicine specialists and technologists, genetic counselors, nurses, and physician assistants.  In autoimmune thyroid disease, there are unique challenges to informed consent, and potential duties to warn in severe hypothyroidism.  In thyroid cancer, the most common ethical issues revolve around truth-telling and advance care planning, and genetic screening for medullary thyroid cancer.  Novel ethical issues in thyroid disease include end of life discussions in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers; priority-set

 

The full study is not available but the first page is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889852914000140?np=y.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: SAT-064: Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Associated with Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy: A Case Report on Hashimoto′s Encephalopathy

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare and underdiagnosed clinical entity presenting as a neuropsychiatric syndrome, associated with serologic evidence of antithyroid antibodies after other causes of encephalopathy are excluded. The main hallmark of HE is its good prognosis and responsiveness to steroids and immunosupressants. We report a case of a patient with elevated thyroid antibodies presenting with aphasia, confusion and lethargy, dramatically improved after steroid therapy.

 

The abstract can be found at http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/endo-meetings.2015.THPTA.8.SAT-064.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Channelopathies of the Nervous System

Ion channels are complex transmembrane proteins that orchestrate the electrical signals necessary for normal function of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system, peripheral nerve, and both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Progress in molecular biology has allowed cloning and expression of genes that encode channel proteins, while comparable advances in biophysics, including patch-clamp electrophysiology and related techniques, have made the functional assessment of expressed proteins at the level of single channel molecules possible. The role of ion channel defects in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders has become increasingly apparent over the last two decades. Neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also be acquired through autoimmune mechanisms. All of these autoimmune conditions can arise as paraneoplastic syndromes or independent from malignancies. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies to ion channels has been demonstrated in most of these conditions, and patients may respond well to immunotherapies that reduce the levels of the pathogenic autoantibodies. Autoimmune channelopathies may have a good prognosis, especially if diagnosed and treated early, and if they are non-paraneoplastic. This review focuses on clinical, pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune ion channel disorders of the nervous system.

This link was posted by G.D. on 28th August, 2014. The full study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3151600/.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: The Hypothyroidism Diet + Natural Treatment

This link from S.E.L. posted on 3rd September, 2014, talks about Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis a.k.a. Hashimoto’s Disease or referred to simply as “hypothyroidism”.

Hypothyroidism is related to having an underactive thyroid gland that does not properly release hormones. According to Dr. Datis Kharrazian, 90% of people withhypothyroidism have Hashimoto’s, an autoimmune hypothyroid condition, whereby the immune system attacks thyroid tissue.

The full article can be found at http://draxe.com/hypothyroidism-diet-natural-treatment/.

Copyright © DrAxe.com

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Scientists discover how to ‘switch off’ autoimmune diseases

Summary:

Scientists have made an important breakthrough in the fight against debilitating autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis by revealing how to stop cells attacking healthy body tissue. Rather than the body’s immune system destroying its own tissue by mistake, researchers have discovered how cells convert from being aggressive to actually protecting against disease

 

This post from D.C. on 3rd September, 2014  shares research done by the University of Bristol on fighting autoimmune disease by revealing how to stop the cells from attacking healthy tissue. You can read the entire article at ScienceDaily.com.

Copyright © ScienceDaily

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Hashimotos Encephalopathy – A Reversible Cause of Dementia

A form of potentially reversible Autoimmune Dementia, Steroid Response Encephalopathy Associated With Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT), also known as Hashimoto Encephalopathy (HE) is characterised by confusion with or without myoclonus, seizures, hyperreflexia, and psychosis.

Presentation may be an insidious development of cognitive impairment or recurrent acute episodes of focal neurological deficit with confusion (can present acutely with multiple recurrent focal neurological events or with a progressive, diffuse pattern characterized by cognitive impairment). It is under-recognized by physicians.

 

The full article can be found at http://www.thedementiacure.com/hashimotos-encephalopathy-a-reversible-cause-of-dementia/.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Targeted GAS6 Delivery to the CNS Protects Axons from Damage during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6) is a soluble agonist of the TYRO3, AXL, MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases identified to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and promyelinating properties. During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), wild-type (WT) mice demonstrate a significant induction ofGas6, Axl, and Mertk but not Pros1 or Tyro3 mRNA. We tested the hypothesis that intracerebroventricular delivery of GAS6 directly into the CNS of WT mice during myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE would improve the clinical course of disease relative to artificial CSF (ACSF)-treated mice. GAS6 did not delay disease onset, but significantly reduced the clinical scores during peak and chronic EAE. Mice receiving GAS6 for 28 d had preserved SMI31+ neurofilament immunoreactivity, significantly fewer SMI32+ axonal swellings and spheroids and less demyelination relative to ACSF-treated mice. Alternate-day subcutaneous IFNβ injection did not enhance GAS6 treatment effectiveness. Gas6−/− mice sensitized with MOG35-55 peptide exhibit higher clinical scores during late peak to early chronic disease, with significantly increased SMI32+ axonal swellings and Iba1+microglia/macrophages, enhanced expression of several proinflammatory mRNA molecules, and decreased expression of early oligodendrocyte maturation markers relative to WT mouse spinal cords with scores for 8 consecutive days. During acute EAE, flow cytometry showed significantly more macrophages but not T-cell infiltrates in Gas6−/− spinal cords than WT spinal cords. Our data are consistent with GAS6 being protective during EAE by dampening the inflammatory response, thereby preserving axonal integrity and myelination.

 

The abstract can be found at http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/49/16320.short?rss=1. We were unable to find the full text of this document.

Copyright © Authors Ross C. Gruber1, Alex K. Ray, Christopher T. Johndrow, Hillary Guzik, Dominika Burek, Pablo García de Frutos, and Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.