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auto-immune encephalitis

Video: Meningitis and Encephalitis: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment


This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Encephalitis

Abstract:

The term autoimmune encephalitis is used to describe a group of disorders characterised by symptoms of limbic and extra-limbic dysfunction occurring in association with antibodies against synaptic antigens and proteins localised on the neuronal cell surface. in recent years there has been a rapidly expanding knowledge of these syndromes resulting in a shift in clinical paradigms and new insights into pathogenic mechanisms. Since many patients respond well to immunosuppressive treatment, the recognition of these disorders is of utmost importance. in general, there are no brain-imaging modalities or biomarkers specific of these disorders other than the demonstration of the neuronal antibodies. a disease classification based on these antibodies provides information on prognosis and paraneoplastic aetiology. This article focuses on recent clinical advances, newly characterised antibodies and treatment approaches to these disorders.

The full text to this study by Frank Leypoldt, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Christian Bien, and Josp Dalmau, can be found at http://www.touchneurology.com/articles/autoimmune-encephalitis.

This study was posted by G.D. on 31st October to this tread – https://www.facebook.com/groups/251477975360/permalink/10154711691935361/.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link PDF: Autoantibodies associated with diseases of the CNS: new developments and future challenges

Several CNS disorders associated with specifi c antibodies to ion channels, receptors, and other synaptic proteins have been recognised over the past 10 years, and can be often successfully treated with immunotherapies. Antibodies to components of voltage-gated potassium channel complexes (VGKCs), NMDA receptors (NMDARs), AMPA receptors (AMPARs), GABA type B receptors (GABABRs), and glycine receptors (GlyRs) can be identifi ed in patients and are associated with various clinical presentations, such as limbic encephalitis and complex and diff use encephalopathies. These diseases can be associated with tumours, but they are more often non-paraneoplastic, and antibody assays can help with diagnosis. The new specialty of immunotherapy-responsive CNS disorders is likely to expand further as more antibody targets are discovered. Recent fi ndings raise many questions about the classifi cation of these diseases, the relation between antibodies and specifi c clinical phenotypes, the relative pathological roles of serum and intrathecal antibodies, the mechanisms of autoantibody generation, and the development of optimum treatment strategies.

This article by Angela Vincent, Christian Bien, Sarosh Irani, and Patrick Waters talks about conditions of the CNS caused by autoantibodies. The full paper can be found at ResearchGate.net. This was posted to thread https://www.facebook.com/groups/251477975360/permalink/10154711712105361/ on 27th October, 2014 by G.D.

Copyright © The Lancet 2011 | Authors Angela Vincent, Christian Bien, Sarosh Irani, and Patric Waters

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Clinical Features of Infectious and Autoantibody Encephalitis

COMMENTARY. In this study, using the Granerod classification [2], encephalitis was defined as an acute encephalopathy with >-2 of the following: fever >38 °C, seizures or focal neurologic signs, CSF pleocytosis (>5wbc/uL) or elevated CSF neopterin (>30nmol/L), and EEG slowing or abnormal MRI. Confirmed diagnosis had the organism or autoantibody detected in CSF or brain. A probable diagnosis had serological evidence of acute infection or autoantibody, and a possible diagnosis was based on detection of the organism from stool or nasopharynx. The term infection-associated encephalopathy rather than encephalitis was used for encephalitis related to influenza virus or rotavirus. Encephalopathy is defined as an altered or reduced level of consciousness and change in personality or behavior or confusion lasting >24 hours.

The abstract only is available at http://www.pediatricneurologybriefs.com/article/view/pedneurbriefs-29-4-7/103.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Rethinking therapy decisions in autoimmune encephalopathy

Researchers say that diagnosis and management of encephalopathies may need to be rethought, as many patients who test negative for the relevant antibody still benefit from immunotherapy.

Of 48 patients with a diagnosis of probable autoimmune encephalopathy, only 21 (44%) individuals were positive for antibodies known to be associated with this type of encephalopathy. However, both antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients responded to immunotherapy, with complete recovery achieved in 20 (42%) children, after a mean follow-up period of 24 months.

The full article can be found at http://linkis.com/www.news-medical.net/oSP1E.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: ‘What can happen if you’re not treated is a coma, or ultimately death’

SPRINGFIELD, Ore. – Two women suffering from a rare autoimmune disease said they were denied treatment at RiverBend Hospital.

The two women suffer from a disease called Hashimoto’s Encephalitis. It’s a disorder that causes inflammation of the brain.

A specialist recommended both patients receive a specific treatment at RiverBend Hospital, but the hospital allegedly denied their request for more treatment.

 

Posted by S.C. on 27th April, 2015.

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Video: CSF presents “PANDAS, Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis & Other Autoimmune Syndromes”

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Encephalitis: Case Panel Discussion

The full video can be found on Vimeo.com on the AE Alliance video page. The link was posted to comments by T.A.O. on 4th April, 2015.

 

ae_alliance

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy by Joana Ramalho, MD, and Mauricio Castillo, MD

This link posted by T.A.O. talks about Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy.

Abstract

We report a case of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy with atypical and partially reversible MRI findings. T2-weighted MRI images revealed bilaterally symmetric areas of increased signal in the mesial temporal lobes and basal ganglia. Despite clinical and imaging improvement after steroid therapy, some memory deficits and MRI abnormalities persisted.

The full study can be found at http://radiology.casereports.net/index.php/rcr/article/viewArticle/445/793.

Copyright: © 2011 The Authors | Joana Ramalho, MD, and Mauricio Castillo, MD

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Encephalopathy

Clinical Presentation and Demographics

Autoimmune encephalopathies, like most autoimmune syndromes, are more common in women than in men. Many of the pathogenic antibody and paraneoplastic forms occur in young adults, but the nonspecific forms occur more frequently in middle-aged and older individuals. The clinical and demographic features of 46 patients with confirmed autoimmune encephalopathy in a recent large series are outlined in Table 2.[9] Their mean age was 59 years (± 12.1 years). Onset was subacute (over 1 to 6 weeks) in 93%, and 91% experienced marked fluctuations. A coexisting systemic autoimmune disorder was present in 48% (Table 3).

The full medscape.com article can be found at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/743774_2.

Copyright © Medscape 2015 | Published in Seminars in Neurology

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.