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Video: Meningitis and Encephalitis – John Toney, MD


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Video: CSF presents “PANDAS, Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis & Other Autoimmune Syndromes”

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune encephalitis: a case series and comprehensive review of the literature

Encephalitic syndromes are a common medical emergency. The importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is paramount. If initial investigations for infectious agents prove negative, other diagnoses must be considered promptly. Autoimmune encephalitides are being increasingly recognized as important (and potentially reversible) non-infectious causes of an encephalitic syndrome. We describe four patients with autoimmune encephalitis—3 auto-antibody positive, 1 auto-antibody negative—treated during the last 18 months. A comprehensive review of the literature in this expanding area will be of interest to the infectious diseases, general medical and neurology community.

 

http://qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/104/11/921.long

Copyright © 2011 Association of Physicians of Great Britain and Ireland | Authors T. Wingfield , C. Mchugh , A. Vas , A. Richardson , E. Wilkins , A. Bonington , A. Varma

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: The Diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalopathies, Dementias, and Epilepsies

Many disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) previously considered neurodegenerative and untreatable are now recognized as having an autoimmune cause.1,2 Autoimmune disorders of the CNS may be paraneoplastic (occurring in the setting of an occult systemic cancer) or idiopathic. Improved recognition of these disorders has been facilitated by an expanding profile of neural-specific autoantibodies discovered and validated for clinical use in academic neuroimmunology laboratories. When detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), these immunoglobulin G (IgG) biomarkers reliably predict an autoimmune cause for neurological dysfunction in patients presenting with rapidly progressive brain disorders. New testing profiles relevant to the evaluation of 3 neurological disease states (autoimmune encephalopathy, dementia, and epilepsy) are now available from the Neuroimmunology Laboratory at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Testing profiles, available for both serum and CSF, include neural antibodies that have been clinically validated as biomarkers of these 3 disorders. (Table 1) Negative results for these antibodies do not exclude an autoimmune basis for encephalopathy, dementia, or epilepsy, so in seronegative cases, a diagnostic trial of immunotherapy should be considered.

This The full comunique can be found at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/articles/communique/2014/07-autoimmune-encephalopathy/index.html. This link was posted on 3rd December, 2014 by T.A.O.

Copyright © 1995– 2015 Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Catatonia: A Duel of Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy and Anti NMDA Receptor Encephalitis (P5.166)

OBJECTIVE

To present a unique case of diagnostic conundrum in a catatonic patient positive for both anti NMDA receptor and anti TPO antibodies with a normal 24 hour EEG, brain MRI and CSF.BACKGROUND:Catatonia, although typically associated with schizophrenia and other affective disorders, can be an uncommon presenting feature of two rare neurologic disorders: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy and anti NMDA receptor encephalitis. Here we describe a case of anti NMDA receptor encephalitis in a catatonic patient positive for both anti TPO and anti NMDA receptor antibodies with a negative 24 hour EEG, normal brain MRI and CSF

The abstract can be found at http://www.neurology.org/content/82/10_Supplement/P5.166.short. The full study may be obtained from the American Academy of Neurlogy; however, we could not find the article elsewhere online at this time.

 

Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Neurology

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Antithyroid antibodies in the CSF: Their role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy

 Abstract

Antithyroid antibodies and circulating immune complexes (CIC) were found in the CSF of six patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) but not in the CSF of 21 controls. The synthesis of autoantibodies and CIC was intrathecal and their titers were independent of the patients’ clinical status or therapy. Their presence in the CSF of patients with acute or subacute encephalopathy may be useful in diagnosing HE.

The Abstract of this study can be found at http://www.neurology.org/content/60/4/712.long. However, the full text is available by subscription only to Neurology.

Copyright © Neurology. 2003 Feb 25 |by Ferracci F1, Moretto G, Candeago RM, Cimini N, Conte F, Gentile M, Papa N, Carnevale A.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

PDF Link: Autoimmune encephalitis – History & current knowledge

This PDF link will take you to a PDF published by PANDAS Network and has a wealth of information about auto-immune diseases.

 

Introduction
The acute fulminating epidemic form of encephalitis lethargica (von Economo, EL) seems to have
disappeared, since there have been no further reported epidemics after 1916-1927. During that period of
time, both rheumatic fever (RF) and Sydenham chorea (SC) were associated with and later proven to be
provoked by streptococcal infections. The occurrence of RF including SC has become much less frequent in
the industrial world.

The full text can be found in a PDF at http://pandasnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Autoimmune_encephalitis.pdf

 

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This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Video: AutoImmune Encephalitis: Common Symptoms and Diagnostic Workup

An excellent technical video (caution: jargon heavy) which discusses Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis and it’s diagnosis and tretament. Highly recommended viewing for those who are pending a diagnosis of Autoimmune Encephalopathy of any kind as this provides some good information.

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Autoimmune Encephalopathy

This MedScape article in “seminars in neurology”, written by Eoin P. Flanagan, M.B.B.Ch., Richard J. Caselli, M.D. for the Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona., and discusses non-paraneoplastic encephalopathy. It focuses on the global effects of auto-immune encephalopathy laboratory testing, imaging tools, anti-body testing, ruling out cancerous causes, and ruling out CJD, among other topics.

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/743774

The full text of this article is found at MedScape and was published in 2011. © 2011 Thieme Medical Publishers

 

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This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Encefalopatía de Hashimoto

The article discusses two forms of presentation, “vasculitic” which is remitting/relapsing and “progressive” which is characterized by confussion, psychosis, and potentially coma. The original article, published in Spanish, is located at http://www.imedicinas.com/pfw_files/cma/ArticulosR/Neurologia/2002/10/109100206280632.pdf.

The full text can be translated at https://translate.google.com/.

The full text of this article is found at imedicinas.com and was published in 2002.

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This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.