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Link: Psychiatric Presentations of Autoimmune Encephalopathies

While a biological basis for numerous psychiatric illnesses has become increasingly appreciated, few mechanistic hypotheses have gripped psychiatric researchers as strongly as an autoimmune basis for behavioral abnormalities.

The full article from Psychiatric Times can be found at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/neuropsychiatry/psychiatric-presentations-autoimmune-encephalopathies.

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types

To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia.

This full text discusses the discovery of NMDA antibodies in those with dementias. The text can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/acn3.120/full.

© 2014 The Authors. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of American Neurological Association.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Assessment of altered mental status

Altered mental status (AMS) is a general term used to describe various disorders of mental functioning that can range from slight confusion to coma. [1] Given the vagueness of the term, it is imperative to understand its key components before considering a differential diagnosis. Fundamentally, mental status is a combination of the patient’s level of consciousness (i.e., attentiveness) and cognition (i.e., mental processes or thoughts); patients may have disorders of one or both. [2] For example, patients with meningitis may have impaired consciousness (i.e., altered sensorium, decreased attentiveness) with intact cognition, whereas patients with dementia may have a normal level of consciousness with impaired cognition. However, more frequently, patients exhibit altered levels of consciousness plus cognition: for example, with delirium, a relatively common and sometimes fatal cause of AMS.

This article discusses “altered mental status” which is often listed as a symptom of encephalopathy. The full article can be found at http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograph/843.html.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Clinical Features of Infectious and Autoantibody Encephalitis

COMMENTARY. In this study, using the Granerod classification [2], encephalitis was defined as an acute encephalopathy with >-2 of the following: fever >38 °C, seizures or focal neurologic signs, CSF pleocytosis (>5wbc/uL) or elevated CSF neopterin (>30nmol/L), and EEG slowing or abnormal MRI. Confirmed diagnosis had the organism or autoantibody detected in CSF or brain. A probable diagnosis had serological evidence of acute infection or autoantibody, and a possible diagnosis was based on detection of the organism from stool or nasopharynx. The term infection-associated encephalopathy rather than encephalitis was used for encephalitis related to influenza virus or rotavirus. Encephalopathy is defined as an altered or reduced level of consciousness and change in personality or behavior or confusion lasting >24 hours.

The abstract only is available at http://www.pediatricneurologybriefs.com/article/view/pedneurbriefs-29-4-7/103.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Blog: #ZebraFightTonight against #HashimotosEncephalopathy

On the 26th of April, local Oregon news station, KMTR interviewed husband and wife, Tim and Kelly McCabe. Kelly is battling a rare autoimmune disease known as Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy (also know as Steroid Responsive Autoimmune Encephalopathy Associated with Thyroiditis or SREAT). Recently a member of the online support group, Understanding Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy – A Support Forum, Tabitha Andrews-Orth, met up with Kelly for the first time in person.

These women both have suffered extensively from this form of autoimmune encephalopathy, which has left them with long term neurological deficits and has impacted their quality of life. They are both treated for this rare condition by local neurologist, Dr. Estevez at RiverBend Hospital in Oregon. However, recently these two very ill women have been denied plasmapheresis treatment which was prescribed by Dr. Estevez as the best treatment for their debilitating medical condition. The board of directors at RiverBend Hospital are allegedly keeping these women from receiving treatment which has been scientifically proven to improve patients quality of life.

On the 27th of April, these two women followed by local supporters held a rally to support them in getting the treatment they desperately need. Kelly and Tabitha have compiled over 50 peer reviewed studies which support the use of plasmapheresis in patients diagnosed with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy to deliver to the board representative. However, upon their previously announced arrival, no one met these women to receive the studies from Kelly and Tabitha. The women were, in full view of cameras and supporters, escorted from the premises by hospital security.

Their courageous battle has now taken to Facebook across three different groups who support patients diagnosed with Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy or other autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as providing information to those who suspect they may have this condition, as well as family, friends, and caregivers. The videos are being shared across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Furthermore, their fellow support group members are taking to social media, including Twitter and sharing the videos using the hashtags “#ZebraFightTonight” and “#HashimotosEncephalopathy”.

Time will ultimately tell how far this story will reach as those who support these two women continue to share their stories via social media. Dxiled will keep you posted on this story as it develops. For now, you can also follow this story on KMTR Eugene, OR by visiting their website http://www.kmtr.com/news.

The original story by Angelica Carrillo and KMTR staff can be found at http://www.kmtr.com/news/local/Denied-treatment-two-women–301378821.html?tab=video&c=y.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: NINDS Encephalopathy Information Page

What is Encephalopathy?

Encephalopathy is a term for any diffuse disease of the brain that alters brain function or structure. Encephalopathy may be caused by infectious agent (bacteria, virus, or prion), metabolic or mitochondrial dysfunction, brain tumor or increased pressure in the skull, prolonged exposure to toxic elements (including solvents, drugs, radiation, paints, industrial chemicals, and certain metals), chronic progressive trauma, poor nutrition, or lack of oxygen or blood flow to the brain. The hallmark of encephalopathy is an altered mental state. Depending on the type and severity of encephalopathy, common neurological symptoms are progressive loss of memory and cognitive ability, subtle personality changes, inability to concentrate, lethargy, and progressive loss of consciousness. Other neurological symptoms may include myoclonus (involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles), nystagmus (rapid, involuntary eye movement), tremor, muscle atrophy and weakness, dementia, seizures, and loss of ability to swallow or speak. Blood tests, spinal fluid examination, imaging studies, electroencephalograms, and similar diagnostic studies may be used to differentiate the various causes of encephalopathy.

The full infomation page can be found at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalopathy/encephalopathy.htm.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Parents warn of mystery illness misdiagnosed in kids

The illness is called “anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis” and was identified only four years ago. But the condition is often getting missed because it can so easily be confused with everything from brain tumours to psychiatric illnesses.

The video and full article can be found at http://www.ctvnews.ca/parents-warn-of-mystery-illness-misdiagnosed-in-kids-1.701777.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Video: CSF presents “PANDAS, Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis & Other Autoimmune Syndromes”

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Re: TPO v. microsomal abs in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

This link will take you to a Listserv specifically for neurologists and clinicians discussing a range of neurological and diagnostic testing information. This tread leads to a discussion on Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy between clinicians.

Re: TPO v. microsomal abs in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Video: PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan: About your Mayo Clinic Test

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.