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Link: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy : epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a term used to describe an encephalopathy of presumed autoimmune origin characterised by high titres of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. In a similar fashion to autoimmune thyroid disease, Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is more common in women than in men. It has been reported in paediatric, adult and elderly populations throughout the world. The clinical presentation may involve a relapsing and remitting course and include seizures, stroke-like episodes, cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms and myoclonus.

The full text of this study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17850170.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Reticular Myoclonus: It Really Comes From the Brainstem!

Myoclonus is a disabling disorder with a heterogenous etiology in which the causing structure can range from the peripheral nervous system to the cerebral cortex.1 Its diagnosis is often challenging especially because of the dynamic, and sometimes infrequent, character of the myoclonic jerks. The use of additional neurophysiological investigations can contribute to the diagnostic process.2 Brainstem reticular myoclonus has been described in postanoxic patients, and electrophysiological characteristics have only been described in a few cases. In this report, we present a remarkable case of symptomatic unilateral reticular myoclonus, with electrophysiological and imaging data compatible with a brainstem generator.

The full study can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mdc3.12054/pdf.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Brainstem Reticular Myoclonus

Myoclonus is defined as ‘quick movement of muscle.’ The resulting brief jerks are shock-like involuntary movements due to either a muscle contraction (positive myoclonus) or a brief interruption of contraction of active muscles (negative myoclonus). The term myoclonus initially included a variety of involuntary movements including tics. In 1903, Lundborg proposed the first classification to help specify this entity. Today, myoclonus can be classified based on clinical features, pathophysiology, or cause. On the basis of the clinical characteristics and electrodiagnostic studies, a relatively accurate site of origin in the nervous system can be predicted. Myoclonus can arise from the cortex, brainstem, spinal cord, and rarely from peripheral nerves. Those arising from the brainstem include exaggerated startle, reticular reflex myoclonus, and palatal myoclonus/tremor.

 

The full article can be found at http://booksite.elsevier.com/brochures/movement/PDFs/Brainstem-Reticular-Myoclonus.pdf.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Post-anoxic myoclonus

Introduction

Myoclonus is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, sudden, brief muscle jerks caused by muscular contraction (positive myoclonus) or inhibition (negative myoclonus).  Myoclonus is generally a medical sign and not a diagnosis. It can occur in multiple disorders. A short differential diagnosis list includes anoxic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  One way to classify the etiologies is through review of the clinical presentation and comorbid conditions. This article presents a review of anoxic brain injury related myoclonus. Post-anoxic myoclonus (PAM) can develop in either acute or chronic phase. Acute PAM occurs within hours after hypoxic event; chronic PAM (Lance-Adams syndrome) develops in survivors several days to weeks after the episodes of brain hypoxia.

 

The full article can be found at http://www.pulmonarychronicles.com/ojs/index.php?journal=pulmonarychronicles&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=130&path%5B%5D=269.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Hashimoto’s myoclonic encephalopathy: an underdiagnosed treatable condition?

We report two patients with subacute diffuse encephalopathy characterized by confusion, myoclonic encephalopathy, and mild akineto-rigid extrapyramidal signs in one case and by apathy, memory deficit, and partial complex seizures in the other.

 

Unfortunately this is an abstract only but useful information for those suffering myoclonic jerks and Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy. The abstract can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8866497/.

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Hashimotos Encephalopathy – A Reversible Cause of Dementia

A form of potentially reversible Autoimmune Dementia, Steroid Response Encephalopathy Associated With Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT), also known as Hashimoto Encephalopathy (HE) is characterised by confusion with or without myoclonus, seizures, hyperreflexia, and psychosis.

Presentation may be an insidious development of cognitive impairment or recurrent acute episodes of focal neurological deficit with confusion (can present acutely with multiple recurrent focal neurological events or with a progressive, diffuse pattern characterized by cognitive impairment). It is under-recognized by physicians.

 

The full article can be found at http://www.thedementiacure.com/hashimotos-encephalopathy-a-reversible-cause-of-dementia/.

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: Report of three cases

Both severe thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism may affect brain function and cause a change in consciousness, as seen with a thyroid storm or myxedema coma. However, encephalopathy may also develop in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases independent of actual thyroid function level, and this is known as Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. Although most patients are found to have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, less frequently they have Graves’ disease. Clinical manifestations include epilepsy, disturbance of consciousness, cognitive impairment, memory loss, myoclonus, hallucinations, stroke-like episodes, tremor, involuntary movements, language impairment, and gait impairment. Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a relatively rare disease. As a good response can be obtained with corticosteroid therapy, early diagnosis and treatment is very beneficial for patients. Here we report three patients with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy with typical manifestations of hallucinations that were associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid status, respectively. They all showed a dramatic response to methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

 

The full text can be found at http://www.jfma-online.com/article/S0929-6646(12)00064-2/fulltext.

Copyright © 2011 – 2015 Elsevier Inc. | Authors Jan-Shun Chang, Tien-Chun Chang

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: More Info: Myoclonus Dystonia

Myoclonus dystonia, a genetic form of dystonia, is characterized by rapid jerking movements alone or in combination with the sustained muscular contractions and postures of dystonia.

 

The full text can be found at http://dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/forms-of-dystonia/myoclonus-dystonia/more-on-myoclonic-dystonia.

Copyright © Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: The use of plasma exchange in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: A case report and review of the literature.

Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy (HE) is a very rare condition characterized by psychosis, seizures, cognitive fluctuations, and myoclonus. In a few published cases, plasma exchange has been used due to the theoretical removal of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), one of the postulated causes of the condition.

 

The abstract can be found at unboundmedicine.com; however, the full text seems to only be available by purchase from the publisher. The full text can be published at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jca.21353/full.

 

Copyright © Journal of Clinical Apheresis 2014

 

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.

Link: Clinical and neuropathological findings in Hashimoto’s encephalopathy: a case report

The “letter to the editor” at Neurlogical Sciences can be found at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10072-013-1554-y/lookinside/000.png. You may be required to login into the site to read the full text.

 

Copyright © Springer-Verlag Italia 2013 | Published in Neurological Sciences February 2014Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 327-329

by Daniele ImperialeCarmelo LabateRoberto TestiAlessandra RomitoStefano Taraglio

This website is not a substitute for independent professional advice. Nothing contained in this site is intended to be used as medical advice. No articles, personal accounts, or other content are intended to be used to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease, nor should it be used for therapeutic purposes or as a substitute for your own health professionals advice.